Sederi 28 — 2018
Francisco J. Borge López
María José Mora
William C. Carroll, “’I knew him in Padua’: London theatre and early modern constructions of erudition.” SEDERI 28 (2018): 7–32.
This paper examines one aspect of the two-way cultural traffic between London and Padua: how the city of Padua figured in debates about the nature of masculinity in early modern London, especially its theatres. Invariably known primarily for its university—noted by Coryat and Moryson, a tourist attraction for Chaucer, Sidney, and Milton—the name “Padua” became synonymous with “erudition.” While learnedness was in theory a positive quality, the place of learnedness in a declining honor culture and its complex role in constituting masculinity remained a contentious subject. English writers by turns envied or scorned the learning acquired in Italy, and invocations of Padua and its link to rapier fencing resulted in a series of contradictory figures in the drama of Shakespeare and Webster: doctors, pedants, enlightened philosophers, lovers, murderers for hire.
Keywords: Shakespeare; Webster; Jonson; Padua; Italy; university; fencing; masculinity; honor.
Aylward, J. D. 1956. The English Master of Arms: From the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Bartlett, Kenneth R. 2006. “Thomas Hoby, Translator, Traveler.” In Travel and Translation in the Early Modern Period, edited by Carmine G. Di Biasio, 123–41. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Bevington, David, ed. 1992. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. 4th Edition. New York: Harper Collins.
Borden, Ian. 2006. “The Blackfriars Gladiators: Masters of Fence, Playing a Prize, and the Elizabethan and Stuart Theater.” In Inside Shakespeare: Essays on the Blackfriars Stage, edited by Paul Menzer, 132–46. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press.
Brathwait, Richard. 1630. The English Gentleman. London.
Buck, Sir George. 1615. The Third Vniversitie of England. London.
Bullough, Geoffrey, ed. 1956. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare. 8 vols. New York: Columbia University Press.
Burnett, Mark Thornton. 2006. “Chapman, George (1559/60–1634).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition. Accessed March 23, 2017.http://www.oxforddnb.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/view/article/5118.
Chaney, Edward, and Timothy Wilks. 2014. The Jacobean Grand Tour: Early Stuart Travellers in Europe. New York: I.B. Tauris.
Chapman, George. 1914. May Day. In The Plays and Poems of George Chapman: The Comedies, edited by T. M. Parrott. London: Routledge.
Chapman, George. 1968. All Fools. Edited by Frank Manley. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Chapman, George. 1970. The Gentleman Usher. Edited by John Hazel Smith. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. 1957. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Edited by F. N. Robinson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cioni, Fernando. 2004. “Shakespeare’s Italian Intertexts: The Taming of the/a Shrew.” In Shakespeare, Italy, and Intertextuality, edited by Michele Marrapodi, 118–28. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Colby, A. L., ed. 1969. Brian Melbancke’s Philotimus (1583): A Critical Edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.
Coryat, Thomas. 1905. Coryat’s Crudities. 2 vols. Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons.
Crandall, Coryl, ed. 1969. Swetnam the Woman-hater: The Controversy and the Play. Lafayette: Purdue University Studies.
Curtis, Mark H. 2015 . “The Alienated Intellectuals of Early Stuart England.” In The Duchess of Malfi, by John Webster, edited by Michael Neill, 191–99. New York: Norton.
Di Grassi, Giacomo. 1594. Di Grassi his true Arte of Defence. London.
Donaldson, Ian. 1985. Ben Jonson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Duncan-Jones, Katherine. 1991. Sir Philip Sidney, Courtier Poet. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Eccles, Mark. 1946. “Chapman’s Early Years.” Studies in Philology 43 (2): 176–93.
Elam, Keir. 2004a. “Afterword: Italy as Intertext.” In Shakespeare, Italy, and Intertextuality, edited by Michele Marrapodi, 253–58. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Elam, Keir. 2004b. “English Bodies in Italian Habits.” In Shakespeare, Italy, and Intertextuality, edited by Michele Marrapodi, 26–44. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Florio, John. 1578. Florio His Firste Fruites. London.
Florio, John. 1591. Florios Second Frutes. London.
Ford, John. 1633. Loues Sacrifice. London.
Forker, Charles R. 1986. The Skull beneath the Skin: The Achievement of John Webster. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Gray, Douglas. 2012. “Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340–1400).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition. Accessed May 31, 2017. http://www.oxforddnb.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/view/article/5191.
Greene, Robert. 1583. Mamillia. London.
Greene, Robert. 1591. Greenes Farewell to Folly. London.
Hexter, J. H. 1950. “The Education of the Aristocracy in the Renaissance.” Journal of Modern History 22: 1–20.
“History”. 2017. Università degli Studi di Padova. Accessed July 13, 2018. http://www.unipd.it/en/university/history
Hoby, Thomas. 1902. The Travels and Life of Sir Thomas Hoby, Kt. Of Bisham Abbey, Written by Himself. 1547–1564. Edited by Edgar Powell. London: Royal Historical Society.
Holmer, Joan Ozark. 1994. “‘Draw, if You Be Men’: Saviolo’s Significance for Romeo and Juliet.” Shakespeare Quarterly 45 (2): 163–89.
Humphreys, A. R., ed. 1981. Much Ado about Nothing (Arden Second Series). London: Methuen.
Huntington, John. 2001. Ambition, Rank, and Poetry in 1590s England. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
James, Mervyn. 1986. Society, Politics, and Culture: Studies in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jonson, Ben. 1971. Every Man in His Humour. A Parallel Text Edition of the 1601 Quarto and the 1616 Folio. Edited by J. W. Lever. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Levith, Murray J. 1989. Shakespeare’s Italian Settings and Plays. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Lewkenor, Samuel. 1600. A Discourse […] of All Those Citties wherein Doe Flourish at This Day Priuiledged Vniuersities. London.
Lodge, Thomas. 1596. Wits Miserie, and the Worlds Madnesse. London.
Low, Jennifer. 2003. Manhood and the Duel: Masculinity in Early Modern Drama and Culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marlowe, Christopher. 2008. Dr. Faustus. Edited by Roma Gill. Third edition. London: Methuen Drama.
Marrapodi, Michele. 1999. “Crossdressing, New Comedy, and the Italianate Unity of The Taming of the Shrew.” Shakespeare Yearbook 10: 333–58.
Marrapodi, Michele. 2014. “The Aretinean Intertext and the Heterodoxy of The Taming of the Shrew.” In Shakespeare and the Italian Renaissance, edited by Michele Marrapodi, 235–55. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
McEachern, Claire, ed. 2006. Much Ado about Nothing (Arden Third Series). London: Thomson.
Middleton, Thomas. 1618. The Peace-maker. London.
Middleton, Thomas, and William Rowley. 1974. A Fair Quarrel. Edited by R. V. Holdsworth. London: Ernst Benn.
Montaigne, Michel de. 1903. The Journal of Montaigne’s Travels in Italy by Way of Switzerland and Germany in 1580 and 1581. Edited and translated by W. G. Waters. 3 vols. New York: Dutton.
Moryson, Fynes. 1967 [rpt. 1903]. Shakespeare’s Europe: Being Unpublished Chapters of Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary (1617). New York: Benjamin Blom.
Nenna, Giovanni Baptista. 1595. Nennio, Or A Treatise of Nobility. London.
Nenna, Giovanni Baptista. 1600. A Discourse Whether a Noble Man by Birth or a Gentleman by Desert is Greater in Nobilitie. London.
Peacham, Henry. 1622. The Compleat Gentleman. London.
Porter, Henry. 1599. The Pleasant History of the Two Angry Women of Abington. London.
Profitable Instructions; Describing What Special Obseruations Are to Be Taken by Trauellers in All Nations, States and Countries… by the three much admired, Robert, late Earl of Essex. Sir Philip Sidney. And, Secretary Davison. 1633. London.
Redmond, Michael J. 2009. Shakespeare, Politics, and Italy: Intertextuality on the Jacobean Stage. Burlington, Vt: Ashgate.
Roe, Richard Paul. 2011. The Shakespeare Guide to Italy: Retracing the Bard’s Unknown Travels. New York: Harper.
Savile, Henry. 1596. A Libell of Spanish Lies. London.
Saviolo, Vincentio. 1595. Vincentio Saviolo his Practice. London.
Segar, William. 1590. The Booke of Honor and Armes. London.
Silver, George. 1599. Paradoxes of Defence. London.
Smith, Sir Thomas. 1583. De Republica Anglorum. London.
Stone, Lawrence. 1961. The Crisis of the Aristocracy 1558–1641. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Stow, John. 1605. Annals. London.
Stoye, John. 1989. English Travellers Abroad 1604–1667. Revised edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Webster, John. 1995. The Works of John Webster. Edited by David Gunby et al.. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Webster, John. 2001. The Duchess of Malfi. Edited by Brian Gibbons. London: A&C Black.
Webster, John. 2008. The White Devil. Edited by Christina Luckyj. London: A&C Black.
Woolfson, Jonathan. 1998. Padua and the Tudors: English Students in Italy, 1485–1603. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Woolfson, Jonathan. 2013. “Padua and English Students Revisited.” Renaissance Studies 27 (4): 572–87.
Wyatt, Michael. 2005. The Italian Encounter with Tudor England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yarington, Rob[ert]. 1601. Two Lamentable Tragedies. London.